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Welcome to a Project to figure out just how ĝir Eme-Ĝir is...

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Word List - (In Progress)

Monosyllabic ( V / CV / V1C[-V1] / and rarely C1V1-C1V1) from Among the Archaic (pre-2500 BC) Roots:


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Meaning Sumeroaltaic (Reconstruction) Sumerian

Altaic

Tk Mng TM Kor Jp 3000 North Caucasian [or SC] Indo-European Akkadian [Afroasiatic] Uralic Dravidian Austric Kartvelian
Limb ŏ- (or ŏp`-) a [a2 [ah5, ahi2]] (arm; labor; wing; horn; side; strength; wage; power) ujV(k`V) (stockings, trousers); [and/or ùp`í (to grasp)] ujuk oji(ki) 55 (ahu (?))
Drink, Water ŋob- ? (> ()o()) a [a [e4, ea, ĝa10, ia10]] (water; semen; progeny) ŋi̯ŏbu ? (to pour) ? ju(b)- jeɣü-le- ńiabe- nūb- 193 (Heu-) ([ḥVw-]) (uwa)
An Opening æb- ab [ab] (window, window opening) (not archaic) ăbu (interior of the mouth) Ăburt owči (x)abu-ǯan- ([*χVw- 'door, opening, throat' (Sem., Eg., Omot., Chad.)]) owe (door) āv- (to yawn) qew- (ravine)
Cow ab [ab2] (cow) 141 āv- (cow) [this has fascinating implications, because domestication of Indicine cattle is thought to have occurred in relation to the Indus Valley Civilization; the term for zebu (indicine cattle) is ab2-za-za (~ za-ab2 ? ~ zebu ?) which literally means "bowed cow" and is separately a bovid designation (za-za, without ab2-)]
A Fish ab [ab[ku6]] (a fish) 1
A Fish ab [ab2[ku6]] (a fish) 1
Sea, Waters ŏp- ? ab [ab, a-ab-ta] (sea) (not archaic) ṓp`à ? (to drink, inhale) [possible Hittite loan ?] ōp- uw(u)- (H)ap- (river, stream) [ʕab- (drink)] op- (to wet)
Father (/Adult (Male)) æp- abba [ab, ab-ba, abba2] (old (person); witness; father; elder; an official) áp`a (father) apa ab[u] apa àpí 6 (ʔŏbV̄(jV) [ʔŭṗV́]) (pǝ-tēr) abu [ʔab-] appe ap- aba (PAN) (ṗaṗ-)
Ornament, Bead ud- ? ad [ad] (bead) (not archaic) i̯uda (ornament) udī- aja oḍ- (beautiful)
A Bush ? ŏt`- ? ad [ad2; ad5] (a thorn bush) (not archaic) [Akk eddetu (var. eddedu) (boxthorn)] ót`ó(rV) (bushes, low trees) otrug utu-n / -r ǝ́ntǝ́rǝ́ eddidu, eddittu
Crippled ad [ad4] ((to be) crippled) (not archaic)
Board et- (vowel irreg.) ad [[ĝeš]ad [[ĝeš]at]; ad [at]] (log, plank, raft) ìtí (board) (h)ideɣür (x)ite ìtá 1
Plank, Raft et- (vowel irreg.) ad [[ĝeš]a-ta, [ĝeš]AD [[ĝeš]at]] (wooden raft; plank of a boat) (not archaic) ìtí (board) (re "raft" in Sumerian, note the TM > Evenki ite, Negidal īte (board (on bottom of the birch-boat)) (h)ideɣür (x)ite ìtá
Sound; Voice ŏt`- ad [ad] (voice; cry; noise) (not archaic) ŏ́t`è (~-t-) (sound) öt- öči- (x)ot- ǝ́tǝ̀
Father ĕt`ĕ (or ĕtĕ) adda [ad [at, ada (~ ata ?)], ad-da [at-ta2]] (father) (Tk OUygh ata (father), ĕ́t`è (elder relative), Mid Kor àtắ (man), OJap tǝtǝ, ti (father), Mng ečige (father)) Ata / Ete ečige (x)eti- àtắ (tǝtǝ, ti) 7 att- (father) [ʔad- (Ug, Phoen, Amh)] (at- (female relative (father's sister, grandmother)))
Body, Corpse ? od- adda [adda (ad6), adda2 (ad3)] (corpse; wreck (of a boat)) (phonetically unrelated to [ad]) i̯ŏ́de ? (skin, to tan) (Tk (not in OTk) > Turkmen ej- (to tan (leather), Azer ejmä (leather bag with clabber), Chuvash ir-źǝ (skinner), Yakut etirik (skin scraper)); Mng. (h)ideɣe > Wr. Mng. ideɣe (tanning stuff); TM (x)odinsa > Evenki odinna (summer skin of deer), Evem odъ̣ndъ̣- (to fade (of skin)) ed- (h)ideɣe (x)odinsa 5
Blade æg- aga [aga3; aga] (an ax) ā̀gV (sharp, whet) (Mng. (h)ag- > Wr. Mng. aɣ (part of blade (closet to handle)), TM āga- (arrow point, notch; whetstone)) [conceivably also note p`i̯ùgV (to flay, cut) (p` / V)] (h)ag āga- 1
A Valuable Item æg- aga [aga3; aga] (tiara, crown) ằgò (trade) (Tk Agɨ > OUygh/Orkh aɣɨ (treasure); Jp àkì > OJp akji (trade), akjinap- (to trade); Mng (h)ag-su-, (h)aɣu-ra- > Wr Mng aɣsun (borrowing or lending money at interest, loan), aɣura, aɣura-su(n) (belongings, possessions), aɣsu- (swap one thing for another)) Agɨ (h)ag-su-, (h)aɣu-ra- àkì 9
A Vessel aga [[zabar]aga] (a type of vessel) (not archaic)
To Differentiate æŋ aĝ [aĝ2] (measure) aŋV (separate, different) aŋgi- aŋa- 38 (An-)
Dry, Dried ah [ah3] ((to be) dried (out), dry; to dry) 10
To Flow ak` ah [ah6, uh3, [a]ah] (spittle) (not archaic) i̯àk`ì (liquid, flow) (O Uygh aq- (to flow), TM iaKu (swamp, ditch; brook), Jp ìkà-i > O Jp. ike (pond)) iak- iaKu- ìkà-i ʔuq_wV -o- (to drink) akʷ- (water flowing) [Cush ʕḳ(w) (water), also Ar. ʕqq] joke ~ jika (river) (SDR āk (swamp); uk- (spill, pour))
To Grasp, Make (With the Hands) ŏk- ak [ag] (to do; to make; to act, perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)) ùkú (to take, grasp, meet) ug-ra- ugtu- oKa- ùhɨ́i- ùká- 197
Fleece aka [aka3] (fleece) (not archaic)
To Scratch, Hoe ĕl- al [al, [ĝeš]al; [urud]al] (hoe, pickaxe; hoeing) ḗĺV (to scratch, rake, row); see also iĺa (to rub, smear) (Tk ɨĺɨ- > Tartar ɨšqɨ (jack-plane), Tartar and Balkar ɨšɨ- (to rub, scrape), TM ilba-, ile- (to smear, clay, lick), Mng (h)il(b)i- > Wr Mng ilbi-, ili-, ile- (to stroke, rub)); aĺV (fresh crops, germinated seeds) ēĺ-; (i)ăĺ- ele-; (h)alir-su elbe-s-; alu 9 alut-, -d- (yeast alum, beer) älV (tree juice) ?
Reed Fencing al [[gi]al] (reed fencing) (not archaic)
Compound Verb Nominal Element (CVNE) al [al] (cvne) (not archaic)
Wild Animals æŋ- ? am [am [ama2]] (wild bull) [the phonetic oddity if not irregularity of Sum m ~ ŋ, which is not necessarily isolated but certainly is rare, may suggest this is a loan, which could explain the more specific meaning in Sumerian, adopted from a more general Proto-Altaic meaning] ăŋu (wild game) ? (Tk Ăŋ - OUygh aŋ (wild game), Mng (h)oɣunu - Wr Mng oɣunu, onu (male mountain antelope), TM aŋa- (wild game, mountain ram, to graze (of deer), enclosure for deer) Ăŋ - (h)oɣunu aŋa- 47 rīmu (?) (wild bull)
A Bird am [am[mušen]] (a bird)
Mother ĕmĕ- ama [eme4] (mother) ĕ̀me (woman, female) eme eme emV ámh mía 60 HV̆mV̄́ (mā-t-er-) ummu [ʔVma] emä am- me (PAA / ma (PAN)
Heavens; Heavenly (?) æn an (sky, heaven; upper; crown (of a tree)) ā́ńu (moon); perhaps also ĭ́na (dawn, dusk) āń oj ańŋa 54 (jānḍ- (year))
Date Spadix an (date spadix) (not archaic)
Tin, Lead anna (nagga ?) (tin or lead) annaku
Approval anna [an-na] (approval, indeed) (not archaic) [from OB, but not considered a Sum lw. or loan to Sum.] annu ((word of) consent, assent, approval)
He, She, This ĕ(-n) ane [a-ne [e4-ne]; e-ne] (he, she) [possibly the deictic root *e- ~"that, it" ~"them, those" with -ne (singulative) to the extent of ~"this one", with a-ne-ne meaning "those ones"] é [-n] ạ(-n) e-ne e- ā-mò á- 4 (ʔŏ [ʔ[a]]) e-n [ha- ?] a- / e- a-/ā a (MY) ha- / e-
Mound ær- ar [ar2 [warx(UB)] (ruin); [URUxA]] (ruin) [Akk equivalent karmu (heap, (ruin) mound)] ā́rV (open space) ? (i)āra ar- ara- 1 ʔārV [ʔārV] ār- arV
To Enchant, Bewitch ær- ar [a-ar2, a-ar, a-ar3; ar2] ((hymn of) praise; fame) (not archaic) ărV (witchcraft, craft) ạr- arga ar- arpa (prediction, sorcery, lot)
To Grind ær- ara [ara3 [ar3, ur5]] (to grind) àŕì (thorn, fang) ? aŕɨg ariɣa (x)ar- (?) ìrà 2 ār- (sharp-(ness)) ?
Mill, Grindstone ar [ar3 [[na4]ara3]] (hand-mill; lower grindstone) erû [CAD does not state that this is a Sum lw]
Omen e-re ara [a-ra2 [e4-re6, e4-ri6]] (times (with numbers); ways; way; omen; step (math.)) ī̀rú (omen, divination) ɨr- / ir- irwa īrme- ùrá 6
Miller arar [[geme2]ar3-ar3; [lu2]ar3-ar3; [geme2]ara3; [lu2]ara3] (miller) :? ararru (miller) [< Sum lw.]
Early, First ĕč- aš [aš [as3]] (one) éča (early, morning) (semantics not close - morning; TM also "now, just now, not long ago; yes, certainly); ăčV ? (elder relative, ancestor) ___; ăčaj / ĕčej esī; asī àčhắm; àčă- àsâ 10 HVcǝ̆́; ______ aus- (dawn, sunrise, east); ______ (išten [ʕišt-Vn-] ?) aćV (early) (Udmurt vaǯ́, vaź, waź (first)); äćä (father) ________; áǯǯ- (grandparents) [or asa / esa] ac̣- (from now on, now)
Boil (on Skin) aš [aš [az3]] (a boil (on skin)) (not archaic)
To Slander, Curse æč`- aš [aš2 [az2]] (curse) áč`u (to doubt) (TM aču- (to slander, slander; to answer), Kor ǝ̄ču-b- (to be indecisive, irresolute), Jp útákáp- (to doubt)) [the only non-suffixed form is TM aču-, itself only found in compounds] (x)aču- ǝ̄ču-b- útákáp- 1 ája- ~ ajír- (to doubt, suspect)
Flour aš [aš] (bread; a type of flour) (not archaic)
Six aš [aš3] (six) (not archaic)
Spider aš [aš5] (spider) (not archaic) [possible Semitic loan] (ašāšu (a moth) [ʕačuč- (insect)])
Father ŏ-(ŏ-) aya [a [aya2], a-a [aya]; a-ia] (father) ùjò ? (relation) (Orkh uja (relation, blood relation), TM oji (relation, spouse), Jp ǝ̀jà - OJp oja (parents)) uja oji- ǝ̀jà 14 au̯- ? äje ? (/ ája- ?)
Cry, Shout ĕ- aya [a; u3] (a cry of woe; to cry, groan) (not arcahic) ĕju ( ~ -o) (to speak, cry, sound) [through a different reflex than e (speak)] ? ạj-ɨt- aji- ejē- òi'ó-
Marshland aya [aya4] (marshland) (not archaic)
To Surround aya [aya4] (to surround?) (not archaic)
Bear az [az; [ĝeš]az] (bear; ~ figurine) 1 asu [< Sum lw.]
Myrtle az [[ĝeš]az; [ĝeš][šim]az] (myrtle) (not archaic)
To Break Into Parts pæ- ba [ba [pa2]] (to divide into shares, share, halve; to allot) p`ajo (to rub off, wipe off, cut off); p`āji (part) (TM pā > Lit Man fa-li (part), Jp pia > OJp -bje (part) [in compounds], Mng hejil- > Mid Mng xejil- (to separate)) ajɨt- haɣu-; hejil- pajū-; pā pūi- pajas-; pia 253
Shrimp ?, Shellfish ? (i-)pæ- ? ba [ba [pa2]] (a marine creature?) [probably a shelled creature, as in bagi/balgi, and murguba (shell - lit. shoulder/back of the ba ?)] ipa ? ( ~ -b-) (shell) [note, for instance, OJp ebi (shrimp, shellfish); if iba, then Sum. iga would be expected (or igV)] (h)ibawu ibu-kta ( ~ igu-kta) apampi 1
(Jagged) Rock bæ- ba [[ĝeš]ba] (a cutting tool) [the Akk synonym suppīnu is also of not exactly known meaning, but CAD appears to imply it was a tool used in brickmaking and may have been related to - or may have been - the boards used to cut/brace the edges of a brick being molded, in that it is listed along with boards used in brickmaking and spinning; the first entry in CAD appears to list it as an iron tool, and it is also listed after two types of vessels; basically the meaning is not clear and even the material of the tool is unclear though might have at least eventually been metal, although the determinative implies it is a wooden item (a la boards)] băjV (rock) bAjɨr baji-ča baj-
To Bind bæ- ba [[tug2]ba13] (a garment) (not archaic) [~ Akk nalbašu (cloak, coat)] bā́ (to bind) [either in sense of wrapping around cloak or coat, or general relation between binding and weaving/sewing] b(i)ā- ba- pa bǝ́ b- (to tie)
Half ba [ba3, ba7] (half; thirty) (not archaic)
To Take Away, Diminish; To Be Weak pĕ- be [be4 [pa2 [wa2]], be6 [ex(PI), pa12, wa, we, a3, i16]] (to deduct, remove; to diminish, reduce; to withdraw, receive (as an allotment)) [possibly an intensification of ba through the vowel shift; it is probably not coincidental it shares an orthography with [ba], and [ba] can be rendered as forms of pa- as well as pe- or pi-]; conceivably though also note bĕ́ (bait) (Jp bai > OJp we and TM be; but bait and bird-seed in OUygh with -ŋ, suggesting the meaning may have derived from small things - though bird-seed might also be secondary] p`ē (to be unable) [to be weak, diminished]; p`íjo (spindle, part of loom or cross-bow) [i.e. to take away, draw (s.t.) back] (Tk ijik (spindle), Jp pí > OJp pji (shuttle (of a loom)); Kor pu- > Md Kor pɨ- (dial.); pi-thɨl- (to spin; to twist); TM pia-la- > Lit Man filan (name of a tree (used for bows)), Negidal pē̂laxa (part of a cross-bow)) [I have been unable to track down what "part of a cross-bow" this refers to - but it is also substantially possible that a letter was omitted in the Russian and that the Russian actually means "archer (for cross-bow)", which would be consistent with the root meaning being "to draw back" or "pull" - with significantly divergent derivations into "spindle" and "to spin; to twist", but that latter betrays the fact that both of those actions require pulling yarn taught; likewise, the shuttle is pulled back and forth across the loom, and the archer pulls back the cross-bow string; Literary Manchu is either secondary or is a reference to actual bowmaking which (ironically, because it doesn't precisely concern the string) involves curving a branch by pulling it without destroying the tension - or it requires stretching the tense string across a bow (made from a favored tree); however, Turkic would probably have been expected to retain the *p-, which might call the association into question]; [noting also póju ( ~ *p`-) ? (child, young (of animals))] ___; ijik jada pē-; pia-la- ___; pu- piá-r- ( ~ -ai-); pí 46
Perfect bu [bu [pu [pi8]], bu2] (perfect) (not archaic)
To Chase, Flit bu [bu2; bu; wu] (to flit, chase about) (not archaic)
To Touch, Reach; Side tæ- da [da [ta2]] (line, side, edge) (not archaic) taja (to lean on); t`ằt`e (reach, arrive at, stay at) ? daja- daji- (?) daja-; tata- ? ___; tàtằ-d- ? tajǝ-r- ( ~ -ua-); tǝ̀ntùk- ? (dUjV (dark) ?) [or ST tǝ̄k] (or tag(')) (idu) ? [or tVyak- (take)] (idu) ? [or tVyak- (take)] taje (to bow, incline) [or takka] (or tag- (to touch))
A Bird da [da[mušen]] (a bird) 1
Compound Verb Verbal Element da [da] (cvve) 5
Side Board da [[ĝeš]da] (side board (of a chariot)) (not archaic)
To Stir (Into a Liquid) da [da9] (to stir into a liquid) (not archaic)
Writing Board da [[ĝeš]da (writing board) (not archaic)
To Flow, Pour de de [de2 [di8]] (to pour; to winnow) dijV ( ~ *t-) (tar, to melt) (Kor/Jp meaning "to cast"; probably closer Altaic meaning "to flow") tī- (d)í- 52
To Bring t`u- de [de6 [di6], de3 [di7]; de2] (to bring, carry) [ES ga, ir (likely lexical replacements)] t`ŭja ? (to give, give a feast) [earler meaning clearly to give or distribute] toj taɣu- tuju- 395 [=VtV̆??] dō- (to give) toɣe (to bring, give) ta- (to bring, to give to 1st/2nd person)
To Shape, Create de [de2] (to shape, create) (not archaic)
Say (speak) t`œ- di [te10, ti4] (non-finite imperfect stem of dug[to speak]) t`oje (to sound, noise) tōj- tüji- tǝjǝ- 2 dē- [taʔ-] ?
To Shine, Radiance t`y̆ di [di5] (to shine) (not archaic) t`úju (to gleam, shine) [[ST [t]ăw (bright, shine)]] [dey- (day, shine)] [daw- (day, morning)] [deɣ- (dye)]
To Go di [di] (go) (not archaic)
Have a Bowel Disorder di [di5] (to have a bowel disorder) (not archaic)
All du [du3] (all) (not archaic)
To Go t`ŏ- du [du [de6, di6]] (imperfect singular stem of ĝen[to go]) t`ā́ja (to float, slide) [to move] tāj- taji-tu- tia- (taj-) taju- 32 (deye-, dyā- ? (to run, to hurry, to move quickly); dū- ? (to go down (ab. sun, etc.)))
To Build, Make dŭb- ? du [du [tu20, ru2]] (to build, make; to do, perform) dubi ( ~ t-) (skilled, accustomed) düj dub- 518
Plant, Fix Upright du [du3 [tu20, ru2] (to plant; to fix upright, erect; to impregnate; to drive in, fix) [possibly an intensification of to lay/put] 6
To Hold, Grab t`u-(t`u-) du [du3 [tu20, ru2]] (to hold, keep in custody) t`[u]tV́ (to grasp, close, detain) tut- todka-, tödüge- tuta- tàt- tǝ̀ntǝ-, tǝ́ntǝ́-má- 1 tud_- (to block up)
Many ? to- ? du [du3 [tu20 [ru3]]] (all) (not archaic) tṓj- (four) ? dȫrt dör-ben, dö-čin dügin dǝ-
Deity Platform du [du6] (throne platform for a deity) (not archaic) dû, d'iu [< Sum lw.]
A Fish du [du6[ku6]] (a fish) 1
To Push, Strike t`ŭ- du [du7] (to push, thrust, gore) (not archaic) t`ut`ì (to beat, strike) tüt- tute- tùtɨ́rí- tutuk-
To Square du [du7] (to square) (not archaic)
Fitting, Suitable t`ŏ- du [du7] ((to be) fitting, suitable) tā̀jV [seems to be t`- with TM irreg/loan, or as reconstr Tk is irreg] (big, good) (Mng daja- (all, great, big), TM dāji (big, size of)) daja-gu daja- dāji 15
To Whirl t`ŭ-(t`ŭ-) du [du7-du7] (to whirl) [obviously see du7-du7 "whirl", but the evolution may have been convergent, as Altaic t`ut`i is more closely semantically associable with "to push, strike"] tüt- tute- tùtɨ́rí- tutuk- 5
To Spread, Thick t`ŭ- du [du8] (to bake; to spread out mud to make bricks; to caulk) t`ùji (thick) Tujug tüɣüd- / tüjit- tùjǝ̀- 78 tawǝ- (to fatten, fat) täwi (full) tav- (much, abundantly) (ṭu- ? (udder))
To Heap, Pile du [du8] (to heap up, pile up) (not archaic)
Lament du [du9-du9] (lament) (not archaic)
To Make a noise t`o-(t`o) du [du12-du12; du12] (to play (a musical instrument)) 1
Say (speak) (i-)p`e- ? e [da-me, ne, be2, e; na-be2, na-be2-a; e7] (perfect plural and imperfect stem of dug[to speak]) ip`i (~-p-,-e) (mouth; to say) (x)ipke- íp íp- 22 [ʔap-] (cf. *apta- 'bark'?) ēv- bVʔ
An Interjection e [e] (a vocative interjection) (not archaic)
To Stay, Dwell be- e [e2; e4 [a]] (house) [ĝa2 (ES) ~ lexical substitution ?] bíju ? (to be, sit) büji- bi- b(u)í- 722
Barley? e [e] (barley?) (not archaic)
Chaff ĕb- e [e3] (chaff) ebí ? (weak, to wither) ebe- ǝ̀bí- impu-sia- 2
Leather Strip e [e; e6] (strip or piece of leather; leather bearing) (not archaic) eau (yau) (< Sum. lw.)
Leave a- e [e3; i; e] (to leave, to go out; to thread, hang on a string; to remove, take away; to bring out; to enter; to bring in; to raise, rear (a child); to sow; to rave; to winnow; to measure (grain) roughly (with a stick); to rent) ā̀ja (to go, walk); aje (to reach, come close) Aj- aja-; aji-su- āj- àjùm-; ǝ́jǝ́mp- 90 ei- [yaʔ/w-] aja- ej- i-
Good, Fitting æ- e [e7] (trust) (not archaic) ăjV (good, fitting) ? ăja- (h)aja aja, aju- [ST ʔǝ̄j ?] [hwy ?] ī̆j- (to agree; proper, possible)
Man; Person be- ? e [e5; e] (princely?) (not archaic) bĕ̀je ? (man; self, body) beje beje bǝ̀
Tube, Socket e [[ĝeš]e11] (tube, socket) (not archaic) uppu ?
Round, Circle ep- eb [eb] (oval) i̯ằpV (to bend, turn; hook) ebir- eb- oboka- àpùkuà 29
To Follow; Push et`- ed [ed3 [e11]; |UD×U+U+U.DU|] (to go up or down; to demolish; to scratch; to rage, be rabid) [the Uralic derivation is semantically closer] ìt`ù (to hit, push); idV (to follow, lead, arrange) [Starotsin claims an original meaning of to arrange in order, excluding Sumerian data] it-; Eder- ete-; iǯi idu- ___; ùt- 241 itV (to run, jump)
To Pierce; To Quilt ĕt`- ed [ed3 [e11]] (pierce) (not archaic) èt`i ( ~ -t-) (thread, to quilt) Etek- etu- / ute- ìtuá
To Rely On ĕt` ed [ed3 [e11]] (strengthen) (not archaic) ḗt`a (to take care of, deal with); ĭ̀t`á (to rely, trust, take upon oneself); at`i ? (son, young) ēt- ___; itege- ete-; (x)iti- àtáŋ átúkáp-; àntùkàr-
Shallow Place eŋ- ? eg [eg2 [i15 [šurux(E)]]; iku2 [ĝa3?]] (levee) [~ Akk iku (dyke, ditch)] iŋV (shallow place) ~ Drav. iṇi- (to evaporate, (flood) to subside) ? (x)iŋā jǝ̄ ( < *i'ǝ) ía īku ([ike(-ne) ? (gums, palatte) ?])
Louse(-Ridden) æk`- eh [eh [ah, uh]] (insect(s), bug(s); moth; head-lice; to have lice) ák`à (dirt, filth) (h)ag (x)aK- ákà 1
Front ? ĕm- eme [eme] (tongue; language) [< tongue < fron; the closest Altaic analogies are "neck foundation, Adam's apple" and "breast", with the emphasis being on the "front part" of a person, presumably] emo (front) ?; [could also note ắmo (mouth; taste (*amo-t`a, *amo-sa)), but the broader Eurasiatic and Borean parallels mostly mean "taste" or "sour"] ömgen emü- ume- / emu- 16 emû (tongue of a plow) (< Sum. lw.)
A Pack for a Pack Animal ? ĕm- eme [eme3, eme6; eme5; eme7, emex(|SAL.EN|)] (female donkey) emV(ŋV) ? (saddle, belt) (Tk ẹ̆dŋe-r (saddle), Mng emeɣel (saddle), TM emu-l > Evenki ōmi (pack strap), emin, emi-lge (horse or deer pack) ẹ̆dŋe-r emeɣe-l emu-l 7
Tongue (Of Plow, Battering Ram) eme [[ĝeš]eme] (a part of a plow; point (of a battering ram)) [quite possibly the "tongue" of the plow, but that meaning isn't so obvious for the battering ram] 63
Wet Nurse (Uralic ? loan) ĕm- eme [eme2] (wet nurse) (not archaic) [& emeda, emegala] emV (to suck) em- em-kü- ime- (to suck; see Finnish imettäjä "wetnurse" and Estonian amm "wetnurse" (Est. derived imettaja to imetada)
(To Be) Aware ĕn en [en] (priest) [could also be related to en (lord)] enu (to beware, attention) anu- (h)an- (x)en-te- 38 enu (< Sum)
To Possess, (Be) Master æn- en [en] (lord) [ES u3-mu-un, umun] ā́ni (to hold, present) (Tk > OUygh inčü, anču (fief, land and vassals presented by the ruler), Mng anǯu > Wr Mng anǯu (fine) [money], TM anī- (to present a gift), Kor ān- (to hold in the arms)) ēn-čü anǯu anī- ān- 59 [Hʷan- ?] ān-
To Shamanize œn- en [en2] (incantation) (not archaic) ṑńè (shaman, spirit) (TM ūńi- (to shamanize) oŋgo-n ūńi- ǝ̀nì vēnd- (king, god) ?
Pleasure, Joy e-ne ene [a-ne; e-ne] (pleasure?) ińo (to laugh) (h)inije- ińe- ūń- 18
To Go, Come er- er [erx(|DU.DU|); re, re6, re7, er, e-ra; er-re, i-ri] (perfect plural stem of ĝen[to go]) ī́re (to come, enter) ẹ̄r- ire- ī- ítá-r- 6
To Flow or Drip er- er [er2 [ir2, era2, ira2]; i-ra] (weeping, mourning; tears; to weep) ire (to melt); [note also ī́ru (to be ashamed, shy, hostile)] ẹri- irū- 4 [ares (to be angry, to lose one's temper)] [(arāru ? (to revile, curse))] [jerV (damn; to swear, curse)] [SD īr_- (anger, grief, fury)]
Throttle ere [er13] (to press, throttle) (not archaic) 219
A Flour eš [eš2] (a flour)
Rope, String eš [eš2] (rope, thong, string) 10
Inside (sheltered place) eč` eš [eš3 [ez3]] (shrine) [shared orthography and pos. cognate with (tent)] ič`u (inside) (h)iči- utu 65 eššu (< Sum) juča (junča)
Three œč- eš [eš5; eš-a-bi [is-a-bi], eš10] (three) [ES am3-mu-uš] óče ? (late, evening) (late) (Jp best preserves "late" ǝ́sǝ́- > OJp oso-) [note isolated Tk. üč ~ öč (three); note re: Eme Sal ŋ[i̯u] (three, thirty) > ŋ ~ m ~ (e-)mo-oč; however because sixty appears to also contain ŋ[i̯u] + uš (possibly through us (to follow)), this may reflect us (lean) ~ prop or uš (foundation) ~ foundational three - or basically the last of the basic-concept numbers (single, dual, plural ~ first, following, many/last) ?] [üč ~ öč ?] öčüge ǝ̀čǝ́i ǝ́sǝ́- (weskʷer-, wesper- (evening)) ? wanša (old)
Musk ? ka- ga [ka3] (milk) ki̯ájo (strong odour; smoke) (> smelly animal fluid) [Alt reconstruction may be confused with ki̯àjú (wind, air), leaving for this root Tk KAjɨr - OUygh qajɨr (castoreum, the odorous secretion of the beaver), and TM koja - Ulcha/Nanai qoja (secretion of a musk deer); when Sumeroaltaic formed, animal husbandry didn't exist, and so ka (animal secretion) would have looked more like (musk), but by the time Sumerian proper evolved, milk from animals would have been common, and a cultural feature totally absent from Sumeroaltaic (which to the extent it had a root for milk, might have referred to breastmilk)] KAjɨr kej koja káiN-púri 155 [Note AA > Chad > Ju ku (milk; breasts)
Arrowhead kŏ(-kŏ)- (arrow > nail > clasp) gag [[ĝeš]gag, gag [kak, ka15 [ki7]]; [urud]gag] (arrowhead; peg, nail) k`ōki (hinge, hook) [*k- suggested by TM guk-] (Tk. kök, köken (hinge, nail, peg, clasp; tether), Jp kunki (nail, peg, hook), Kor kūkta (rowlock), Mng kögene (a string with a loop for binding animals); also possibly note gék`á (hook, bend) [-k- in TM]] kök, köken kögene kūkta kunki 57
Pock gag [gag] (a pock; a disease) (not archaic)
Notch (v. / n.) ge ge [ge14, ge15, ge3, ge22, ge23] (blow; wound; stroke of the stylus; (piece of) writing, copy, exemplar, written) (not archaic) gijo (notch, to cut aslant) Kɨj- gia- ki
To Be Agitated gĭg- (< gĭ-(gĭ-) ?) gig [ge17, gib3] ((to be) sick; (to be) troublesome) gĕ́gà ? (to be angry) (Wr Mng ɣaɣa-ra- (rave), TM geg (angry)); [maybe note gíme (defect) (commonly sick/illness)] KAkɨ- gaɣa- geg- kákúat- 43
Reed ki- gi (reed, cane; a unit of length) kìjá (a k. of grass) (Mng kija- (young fresh grass on river banks), Tk Kɨj(g)ak (sedge)) Kɨj(g)ak kija- kijo-kta kójōm kàjá 977
Reed Thicket gi [[ĝeš]gi] (reed thicket) 96
To Distill, Ferment ge- gi [gi, [šim]gi] (an essence) gṑje ? (a k. of ferment) göjü- gū ( ~ *gǖ) kɨ̄i- ki
To Wander ? kĭ- gi [gi4 [ki8]; gi [ki2, ke2]] (to turn, return; to go around; to change status; to return (with claims in a legal case); to go back (on an agreement)) kḕju (pass beyond) Kej- kēj- kúaja- 54
Cord, Net gu [gu] (cord, net; unretted flax stalks) 54 qû (flax, thread, string)
Bank, Side gu [gu2] (bank, side; neck) 30 [ḳÚHV (head)] ahu ? ([gʷay- ?] kɔ(ʔ) (PAA) ?
A Bird kŭ- gu [gu2[mušen]] (a bird) [also the stem of gu2-bi2[mušen] (a marsh bird)] kúja ? (an aquatic bird) Mng kajil- (sea gull; lark) kuju- (goose; duck; young (of birds)) Kor kǝ̀jú, kǝ̀ijú (domestic goose) 1 käjV ((young) bird)
Nut, Berry kŭ- gu [gu2] (pulse, bean) (not archaic) kúja (a k. of nut) (TM also in a compound meaning (blueberry)) kuju-kta kài'òm kaja
To Shout, Blow ? ku- gu [gu3] (voice, cry, noise) ki̯àjú (wind, air) KAj kuj kuje kùrì- kùjú-r- 6
(To) Eat ? kŭ- (or gŭ-) gu [gu7 [ku2]] (to eat, consume) kujV [k`-, g-] (thick, saturated) Koju-g kǝ̄-r- kuá- 456 (=ä̆G_wV [=V̆́GwV]) (gʷei(w)o- (live)) kuje (fat) (CǝN)gVjH) ('thick' PAA) gw- (feed)
Another, Other go- gu [gu7 [ku2]] (to square (math)) (not archaic) gojV (different, other) (TM goj/gia > Lit Man. Guā (other, another); Mng gojar- > Wr Mng qojar (two)) gojar goj / gia kía (HVq̇wV (strange, foreign)) gaw/gw- (other)
I (1st sg.) ŋæ ? ĝae [ĝa-e; later ĝe26] (I) [1st sg pronoun] ŋa (1st obl) na-m- a- 2 ŋV (I) (n- (etc. 1st)) ((an-) [ʔan-]) (njā- (I, we)) ŋau (etc 'I') (naj (we))
To Rest, Dwell ŋŏ- ĝa [ĝa2, ĝe26] (house) (not archaic) [ES ma] ŋū́ju (to sleep) ū-dɨ-, ū-dɨ-k-la- nojir ŋu(j)a úi- (au- (pass the night)?) (nOjV (to tire) )?
A Bird ĝaĝa [ĝa2-ĝa2[mušen]] 1
Shaded Place, Dark ŋa-(ŋa-) giggi [giggi [gi6, ge6, ĝi6]] ((to be) black) ŋi̯aji (lower side) [i.e. shaded area (blocked by something above) > dark > night] ŋia- nằrí- 13 nei- (lower, bottom)(or ḱei̯ǝ- ?) (or ke-) ŋVw ? (shade, dark)
Night ĝi [ĝi6 [gi6]] (night) [< dark] 629
A Bird ĝi [ĝi6[mušen]] (a bird) 1
Be It, Be He he [he2 [hi2]; he2-a] (be it, be he) 4
To Mix hi [hi] (to mix (up); process (skin; wool, in the latter possibly a stage between combing and spinning); alloy) 8
A Fish HI [HI[ku6]] 4
Compound Verb Nominal Element (CVNE) HI [HI] (cvne)
To Scrape, Dig k`op`- ? hu [hu] (to scrape off, grub up) (not archaic) k`ap`V (to press, grasp) Kap- kab- xap-ki- kap- (cf. also ghab-) kappV kav-

Bisyllabic (VCV / CVC / VCVC / CVCV (/ VV / CVV / VVC)) Archaic Roots:  (This is a tad more difficult than monosyllabic as, for instance, asal2 could derive from a-sa-al or as-al, likewise apin might come from ap-in or a-pi-in etc.)

Meaning Sumeroaltaic (Reconstruction) Sumerian

Altaic

North Caucasian [or SC] Indo-European Akkadian [Afroasiatic] Uralic Dravidian Austric Kartvelian
Flooding a-de2(-a) [to bring water] (var_- ?)
Pleasure a-ne
Times (Math) a-ra2
Doorkeeper a-tu
Doctor a-zu / a-zu5 / azu [to know the water ?] asû (< Sum) (> Semitic)
To Learn, Measure e-aŋ a2 aĝ2 (command; instruct) [measure the time/arm ?] ēŋV ? (think, understand) ([ŋā (ST)] (know, be awake)) āw- (note, listen) [ʔVngʷ- (brain) ?] ajŋe (temple) eṇ- (to count)
Manacles a2-la2
A Wooden Object a2-na
Livestock ab2-udu
Rear Cow ab2-ur2
Cosmic Underground Waters abzu (< ZU.AB [The Knowing Sea ?]) apsû (< Sum)
A Profession ad-NE
Treasure ?? agV ? aga3 (tiara) ằgò ? (trade (~)) agû (< Sum)
Sharp (Thing) / Ax agV aga3 (an ax) ā̀gV (sharp, whet)
Clay ? alan (statue)
Beam; Timber am-ra amrû
Elephant am-si
Universe an-ki [heaven and earth]
Tin or Lead an-na
Upper an-na
Plow Animal (?) en-ǯe anše (donkey) [an (~ungulate) - še (barley < food)] ènŋù (young of an ungulate) (amča ? (plough)) ?? ein- (deer, roe) (āmāǯ (Pers) ? (plough)) ??
Upper an-ta
An Official ara
To Buy, Sell ?? arad2 [ir11], arad [ir3], ar3-tu (ES e-re) (slave, servant) [HV̆́rV̄ (to change, borrow)] ar- (to gain, distribute) ardu (slave, servant)
Wall ba8 [bad3] p`ádo (or bĕ̀dù?) paδV (dam, enclosure) paṭ- (yard; dwelling)
(To Be) Far, Wide pa(-t`) ? ba9 [pe3] / ba [pa2] (-r / -d) ((to be) remote) (p`át`à (uncultivated land, field (< stretch/wide))) pet- (to stretch out) petû [pitaḥ-] (to open) (pāT- (field, garden bed))
To Dig, Excavate ba-al
Unit of Capacity ba-an
Bright, Light babbar [bar6 / par] (white) pārē [[p]ārē] ? (lighting, brilliance) bar / bur ? (morning)
Turtle ba-gi
To Turn bal (turn; pour; term in office) (ʡwilʡă (wheel) [ʡwelʡV̄́ (to roll, wheel)]) ((e)wele- (twist, drag along)) palû (period of office) (< Sum) ([wV(H)l- (to turn, roll) ?] (vaḷ-ai- (turn, surround)) (wial (round) PAA)
Spindle balak [bal / bala] gălV (stick) ?
Other Side ? ba-r ? bar / ba-ra (outside, (other) side) baŕV ? (opposite, inimical)
A Fish bara2
To Mix? bara2
A Fish ba-za
To Shine (of Sun) ? bel ? bil3 (to burn) bĕ̀ló (pale) ? bhel- (to flame) ? [(bVlVg- (shine) ?] (peĺkkä ? (clean) ?] veḷ- (white) ? (~balar (pale) ?) (berc̣q̇ (to glitter) ?)
Locust bir5
To Tear (Out) bur12 [bu] bóra ? (to divide)
~Pale Light, (Glow, Shine) bu(-r) bur2 [bu8] (light (; glow, shine)) boŕV (grey) būrV (grey, brown) [bū́rV̆ (gray)] bhrūn- (brown) (barmu (particolored)) ? [buHar- (yellow, brown..)?]
(To) Free, (To) Loose ? bu(-r) bur2 [bu8] (to release, free) bi̯ura (lose, abandon) (bher (throw)) (pOra (fall)) (bar/br (diminish))
To Blow bol ? bul4 bolī- (Ewk) (to blow (of wind)) bhlē- (to blow...) (ber- (to blow...))
A Fish bul5
To Give, Offer ? bor ? bur ((food) offering, sacrifice) bi̯ṓr[é] (to give) bher- (to bear) ? pūru (< Sum) [// barVʕ- (give)] por- ? (join, unite) (beRay (PAN) (give)?) bar- (to confide, consign)
A Unit of Area bur būru (< Sum)
Crow kor ? buru4 [ki̯ăro] (worn- ?) [ korw- ; also k'oro-] warV ? [kOrnV]
Bird(s); Sparrow buru5 [< ~bVrw ?] werb- (?)
To Take, Hold t`ab dab / dab5(-dab5) (seize, take hold) t`abi (to pick up, collect)
Round, Turn t`eb ? [not sure why I suggested that; perhaps t`ep - variant of "pass through"?] dab6 [da5] (go around, turn) t`òp`ú ? (round)
Dwelling, To Dwell t`ag dag [tag2 / da8] t`égè(-rV) (edge, border) tk'ey- (to dwell, to inhabit) taɣV (takV) (place) taŋ-/tak- (to remain; to stay)
A Fish da-ka
Bride (Price) ? t`am dam [da4] (spouse) t`ằma (bestow, pay)
Pure, Clean dan6
Unit of Length, Double Hour/Mile da-na
To Break Up t`a-r dar (break up, crush, grind) t`ájri (to scatter, disperse) ter(y)- (to rub) tara (to open) tar_e- (to cut)
Red-Brown, Clay ? t`er- dara4 (red (; brown)) t`ḕŕù (dirt, dung)
To Support da-ri
Eternal da-ri2 dārû
Torn/Piece, (To Tear) ? t`e(-k) ? deg (RI) (to take; also tear out) t`ĕ̀kí (piece, tear into pieces) ?
Call Out (a Name) t`e-d di (did) (lawsuit, trial) t`édù (transmit) dūd_- ? (mention a name)
(To) Pass (Through / Along) t`e-p dib (DI) t`ằp`è (to go through) (etēqu ?) tav-iṛ- (?) (creep, crawl) ṭoṗ- (to wade)
To Judge di-ku5
Judge di-ku5
Head ? dilV ? dili (single, sole, unique) dilu (purest derivations seem to be generally TM dil/del "head" and Literary Manchu ǯili "horn foundation") dēlu (< Sum)
(not archaic in Sumerian; possibly a common derivation from dilV "head") dilib (hair; equates with uruhhu (hair (of head); CAD says specifically perhaps forelock or hairline) dilu (Tk. julɨŋ / jülüŋ (m;arrow; spinal marrow) Mng. ǯiluɣa; ǯulai, ǯula (brain; sinciput, fontanelle); TM dili (head; horn foundation)) [meaning-wise, equates with uruhhu (hair (of head) (CAD says specifically perhaps forelock or hairline))]
A Fish dili
Stick, Post t`em dim (post) t`ĕma (net string, net needle) timmu
A Fish dim
To Make t`e-m dim2 (DI) (create, make) t`ámu (put into, gather) [thǝ̄mH (many) ?] [tVm (completed)] temV (full) tumb- (full, fill) tVm (full)
Small Object, Figurine dim3
Unmng din
Big, Great tir- diri (great...) [tir4] tī́ri (thick, plenty) [TVrV (big, numerous)] (dreu-) tire (full) tōr- (large, stout...)
Knee t`o-p(`) [late?] du10 [dub3] t`op`u
Good do-g du10 [dug3] di̯òge =ĭnk_w [Vd=ĭk_wVn] (right) dheugh- (ready, sufficient)
To Speak, Transmit (?) t`u-k du11 [dug4] t`ukí (transmit) (dababu ?)
An Affliction du11-ga
Command du11-ga
To Dig dun [du24]
To Lay (warp) dun [du24]
Elevation ? t`u-d ? du6 (-r / -d) tī̀du ? (elevation) tùd- ? (point, edge) dud- ? (tip)
Cultic Place du6-ku3
Fitting, Suitable du7 (-r / -d)
Knock (Loose) ? t`o-k` ? duh [du8] (loosen, open) t`ók`ù (hit, knock) ? [tōk / thŏk (ST) ?] teuk- (to beat) takāku (press) [tuk (beat, press)] tukV (to break) tōɣ- (to kick, stamp) TVk (to beat)
Bran duh [du8] tuhhu (< Sum)
To Hit, Knock [Loose] ?? (t`u-k` ?) du8 [duh] (loosen, release) t`ók`ù (hit, knock) [tōk (ST)] teuk (beat) tukV (to break) tōɣ- (kick, stamp) TVk (beat)
Tablet dub ţuppu
To Beat, Strew ? t`op(`) ? dub (to strew) t`i̯op`è ? (to trample) [TVp (beat) (ST)] tap- (press...) dup- (push) tappa (stamp) tap- (to strike) dVp (to beat) ṭḳeb- (trample, press)
To Tremble dub
Pot (/ Bowl) ? t`o-g ? dug ((clay) pot) t`i̯age ? (a k. of vessel)
(To) Cover t`ul dul (to cover) t`ū́ĺi ? (seed, egg) [ṭVɫV (egg)] tōl- (egg)
First, Chief (child) ? t`um- dumu (ES du5-mu) (child, son, daughter) t`ŭmu ? (head, top of head) (Wr Mong. tomi (chief, first))
Totality dur
Knot, Tie dur dur (...knot, bond, tie) dŭŕi (ring)
Defile, Cleft dur2
To Sit [tuš] pl dur2
A Bird dur2
Young Male Donkey dur3 [ANŠE-ARADx(nita) male donkey] t`ṓrV ? (young animal)
A Goat durah [dara3] (wild / mntn goat) tork(')- ? (he-goat, pig) turāhu
(To Be) Soft duru5
Tavern? e2-da4
Chamber e2-mi
Queen's Household e2-mi2
Type of Ewe or Lamb e3-li
Heavy Rope ebih2 ebīhu
Female Donkey eme3 / eme6
A Bird EN.TI
Ruler en-či ensi2 (ruler, governor) ā̀ńe(-č`V) [quiet, sit] / ā́ni [hold] iššakku (< Sum)
Dream Interpreter ensi3 ensû (< Sum)
Cedar eren erēnu
A Fish eren2
Lady, Queen ereš
A Fish erin
To Yoke erin2
Bond eš2-la2
Hand / Within Reach ? ŋa-l ga7 [ĝal2] (ES ma-al) (to be (there, at hand)) ŋā̀li (hand) ? χĕɫHe [χV̆ɫHé] (hand, sleeve) ʔōlʌ- (elbow) älV (lap) ? ɣlia- (armpit)
CVNE ga7-la
Chest, Rib Cage gaba (breast, chest) gébó (shell, husk)
Flax gada kitû
Decision, Intention ? ka-(e)č ?? ga-eš8 [ka-eš8] (decision) káče (wish, intent) kaće (see, look, notice)
CVNE ĝal2 (ES ma-al)
Lamentation Singer gala kalû (< Sum)
Mange, Scab, Leprosy gan
To Bear Young ken ? gan [kan] ki̯úne (person; people; country) ǵenĕ- (give birth; be born)
Come On! ga-na gana (< Sum)
Field gana2
A Bird, Ostrich ga-nu11
Former, Retired gar
Type of Bread gar3
Stump, Arm ? gar- gar3 (knob) gàrá (arm) karru (< Sum) [(Eg. ǯry (hand))] gar_- (long feather)
Cream gara2 ghert- ? (dairy produce) garû (< Sum)
To Kill, Slaughter gaz qeć- ? (tear, rip)
Mustard Seed; Licorice gazi kasû
To Carry With o.s.? ge13 [ĝen / gin] / gi [gin6] (permanent) ŋā̀ńì? nēy- (lead) (kīnu ?) naṇ- (approach)
A Female of Inferior Social Status ? gem- ? geme2 (female worker) gămo (concubine, co-wife) ? g'em- (son-in-law, fiancé; to marry) [gʷen-, *gʷnā- ? (woman, wife)] (kim- (family) ?) [kVm (to give birth)] ? (kmar (husband))
Tree ĝeš (işu ?)
Lance, Spear gi27-da
(To Be) Big, Tall ge-t ? gid2 [gi27] (-r / -d) găte (strong, very)
A Reed Fence gi-du3
A Grain kip ? gig (kib) (wheat) kìp`é ? (bran, millet) kibtu (?)
Unit of Weight, Shekel giĝ4
Ax, Adze giĝ4
Reed or Tree gi-gi27
To Shine, Glitter ?? gil ? gil (treasure) gìlè (shine, glitter) ? ḳV́lʡV [ḳV́lʡV] (white) g'hel- / [kalap- (red, brown)] kīl- (BF glitter) kiḷ- (rust, verdigris) ?
A Fish gir
Scorpion ĝir2
A Fish ĝir2
A Bird GIR2@g ?
A Fish giri
Razor ĝiri2 [gir2 ?] [ḳirV́ (knife) ?]
Foot, Leg ĝiri3 [gir3 ES me-ri] (via, by means of, under the authority of someone; foot) (k`[ú]ŕa (pole; finger, toe)) ḳwĭrV (leg bone, leg of animal) [ḳwĭrV (leg)] (karn-/-e- (handle)) (kurmV (handful)) kurV (hoof)
A Reed gi-zi kīsu (< Sum)
A Fish gi-zi
A Bird gu2-bi2 kupītu
Chair, Stool gu2-za kussû
A Garment gu3-zi
Bull, Ox gu4 (-r / -d) (bull, ox) (k`akt`o Tk Kotuŕ (yak)) [gʷow- ? (cow)] kōḍ- (bull, cow)
Bull gu4-ab2
A Bird? gu4-du7
Cowherd gu4-us2
Friend, Comrade gu5-li (goli ? (female of an ungulate)
To Rise (Up) ? gop gub [gup] (to stand) gi̯ṓp`e ? (to swell, form blisters)
To Bathe, Wash gub2
Tooth gug
Offering, Cake gug2 kukku ((< Sum ?) also Aram/Arab)
To Kill, Destroy ? gul (destroy) (=ilqwV (to die) ?) gʷel- (cause pain, kill) kola (to die) q̇wil- / ḳal- / q̇law- (to kill)
Big, Great gal- gal(-gal) / gu-la (big, great) gi̯ălu (thick, whole) (/ gaĺi (to contest) ?) [Possibly translated as 'shang' (above/great) if it's possible the Xiongnu Chanyu Laoshang is a partial translation of lu-gal as /lu/-GREAT(shang)] (g(h)alǝ- (to be able)) (gel- (to win))
Sheaf of Reeds gu-la2 ?
Light gon gun3 (speckled, multicolored) gi̯òjńu (dawn, daylight) [k]wăńɦV (light) gʷhei- (light, bright) ? koj[ń]e (morning dawn) (kāŋ (PAA) (moon))
Unit of Capacity gur kurru
To Reject..., Turn Away gur
To Cut gur gur10 (to reap) gi̯óro (to cut, carve, shear) ([ḳirV́ (knife) ?) g'har(a)- (scratch, scrape) [ḳaraʕ- (cut)] gīr_- (lines) KVr (to scrape, dig)
(To Be) Thick gor gur4 ((to be) thick) gŭri (wide, broad, thick) kabru (?)
To Grind, Grate gur5
Harvest Season (?) bor- ? gur7 (buru) (harvest, summer) (pŏ̀ru ? [< borV ?] (to snow, rain)) ebûru (?) (purkV (snowstorm)) poṛ- (?) (to pour) bur (fog Georg))
An Animal gur8
Unmng gur8
Grain Heap guru7 karû
(To Be) Tufted ? guč- ? guz (tufted) guči (eagle) ? (kočka (eagle) ?)
To Be Bright ha-ad
A Plant hab2
Smell, Stench (h)ap ? hab2 (maloderous, fetid) ap`i (wind, vapour) ? happu (< Sum ?) ipV (taste; odor) ? (ha[ɣ]um (smell, aroma) ??)
Round, Ring k`er har [hir2] (ring) k`erV (to go / walk around) ker- (circle, round object) kerä (round, rolling)
A Bird har
To Tear, Break Off k`aǯ- haš (break off) k`ĕǯa (to rip, tear apart) haşābu (?) kečV (knife) kac- (to bite, sting) (ḳac̣r-, ḳac̣wr- (to scatch))
Plenty he2-ga7 (heĝal) hegallu (< Sum; Akk > Hur)
Acrobat hub2 huppû
Bronze Arrow hud4
To Possess / Master (?) k`oŋ ? huĝ (to hire, rent); huĝ (to pacify) k`i̯óŋi (head of clan) [Possibly preserved in the name of Wuwei, Xiongnu Chanyu (Qaʁi)]
To Destroy hul qallu (?) [ḳal (small)]
Ruined, Maloderous k`ol- hul (ruination) k`i̯aĺu (~ k`i̯oĺa) (dirt, unpleasant odor)
Joy, Rejoice hul2
Joy mag- (to make noise) makkaš (lamentation; clamor, uproar) [post-2000 bc origin] mi̯àga (glory, praise); Tk. bAgatur (hero); Mg. magta- (praise, glorify); TM m[ia]g- (shamanize; make noise); Kr. mār (speech); màwǝ̀-s- (to speak (polite))
Angry huš (furious, angry) k`i̯úsè ? (bad behavior) ezzu (?)
A Fish huš
Doorkeeper i3-du8 atû
Divination? i3-gi27
Month i3-ti / i-ti / iti (itud) (moon)
A Garment ib2-du3
Face eŋ- ?? igi [ini2] (face) òŋè ? (exterior, front) u̯eng'h- (neck, cheek) ?
Eye ? eg- ?? igi (eye) uk`u (understand, look into) =agwV (to look, see) okʷ- (eye) [ʕaḳ- (know, see)] āk- (to know) (/ o(i)k- (to see) ?) wVk (to train, teach)
Unit of Area/Volume iku ikû (< Sum)
Last Year im-ma
Clan im-ru
Clay Cover im-si imšukku (< Sum)
A Fish in-gi4
A Fish i-zi
A Fish kad4
To Tie, Gather kad4
A Bread ka-gu7
Rare, Valuable kal
To Tune? kam [ka13]
Gate ka-n ? kan4 [ka2] / ka kenta (threshold, gate; -ABL?)
To Flee kar [ka11]
Harbor, Quay kar [ka11]
To Insult, Anger kar kar2 (insult, slander) kàra (opposite, enemy) (/ kéro (fight, kill) ?) kory- (war, troops) (/ kar(w)- (offend, punish) [q̇araw- (war, fight)] (/karV (afraid, scared)) kar_ (anger, enmity) (/ kir_ / kor_ (angry))
Beer kaš2 (=Hić_V ? (rot, ferment))
To Move, Go ? keč ? kaš4 [kas4] (runner, trotter, messenger) kóčè ? (to nomadize, transport)
To Bind keše2 (-r / -d)
Desire ? ke- ? ki-aĝ2 (to love) kaje ? (love, covet) kā- (dear; lover) keje (mate, pair, flirt) ḳo- (to wish)
Mat, to Weave ? ked ? kid (reed mat) ki̯àdi (seem, to sew, lace) ? kītu (< Sum)
Hit, Stamp ? ket` ? kid2 (break off, pinch off) kā́t`e (to knock (of hooves), trot)
Type of Fish kiĝ2
To Work kiĝ2
Threshing Floor ki-ga7 (kiĝal)
Weight ki-la2
A Fish ki-mu11
Wild Dog ? ker- ? kir4 (hyena) keru(ĺV) ? (k. of predator [~wolf/bear]) (karaḍ-i (black bear))
Plantation, Orchard kiri6 kirû
(The) Thing(s) kes- ? kiš [kis] (totality, world) késu (thing, sort, order) kiššatu (< Sum ?) (käske (to order, invite))
Empty Place ki-ǯ(?)ur ki-su7 [kisur - place of ~abandonment (i.e. threshing)] ki̯aǯurV (sand, steppe, earth [Mng. kuǯir 'salty earth'])
Lower ki-ta
A Fish ki-zi
Metal, Silver ku3 (-r / -d) gʷedh- ? koṭ- ?
(To Break Off a) Piece ku5 (-r / -d)
An Animal ku5-da
Underwater ? ku6 [kud] (fish) kùdá ? (submerged) g?adh- (drown) ? (ku?- (drink) ?)
Stair(case) kuĝ5
To Run kul [ku9]
Unit of Liquor ku-li
(To Be) Hot um ? kum4 [um2] / kum2 umV ? (fire, to burn) emēmu (?) ([ʕumr- ?]) (umrV (flame))
Tail, Braid ? kun- ? kun (tail) kunu (fold, twist) ? ?
Mountain, Hill ? gur ? (/kur) ? kur [gur16] (underworld (mountain))  k`ori (hill; embankment, boundary) [?] GwērV (stone) gʷer(w)- (mountain) kurV (hill, elevation) kùr_ (name of a mountain tribe) gora (hillock)
To Burn; Burnt ? kur ? kur (to burn, light) kàru (black) ? xḳărV́ (black; coals) kerǝs- (black) ? [ḳVrh- ?] kar- (black; to burn)
To Go, Enter ? kur kur (to enter) kure (run, quick) kors- (to run, hurry) kürъ (Sam to run away, flee)
Basket, Vessel kur- ? kur2 (unit of capacity based on vessel size) kúra(mV) ? (sheath, basket)
Distinguish, Differentiate kur kur2 ((to be) different) ki̯óru (rank, position)
Skin kuč` ? kuš (skin) káč`u (covering, skin) k[ä]ćća (skin, hide) (xoc̣- ? (to cut out, [to] skin))
Tired kuš2 ki̯oči ? (nasty)
A Unit of Length kuš3
Powerful, Rich ? kuč` ? kuš7 (a high official) kūči ? (power) kizû (?) kiśV [küśV] (rich)
Summer kuš7 (qēşu (CAD W Sem ??)) kačV (warmth) [or maybe kesä (summer) ?]
To Bring [de] lah4
Syrup lal3 làlè (sticky substance)
To Flourish, Grow ? lam- ? lam (flourish) (lēmo (fresh, raw; vegetables?) (lumb- (wet))
Inner Organ lib- lib (inner body; heart) li̯ap`V (spleen) ? (lepr- (liver)) libbu [la/ipʔ- (/ li/ubb (heart)] läppV (spleen) limpa (spleen) ?
Man lu2-lu7 lullû (< Sum)
To Clean, Wash luh lawe- <PIH *-Hʷ-> (to wash, to bathe) ? leqw- / lqw-
Full, Replete, Satisfied lum
A Fish lum
Type of Bag lu-ub2
Salt-Water Fish lu-ub2
Type of Pole ma-gi27
A Towed Boat ma-gi27 makkītu (< Sum)
Freight Boat ma2-la2
To Be Old, Big mek` (because of the dramatic connotative split, presumably an ancient Proto-Sumeroaltaic root) mah2 ((to be) great) mók`ì (old, aged) (Mng. mökü- (to perish, fade away); TM muxu (to lose powers, to be exhausted) (This is associated with rabû (to be big; to grow), which suggests a similar possible connotative shift from rb (grow) to rb (great) in the sense of large/largesse). mug (to end, terminate)
Female Neighbor ma-la
Dream ma-mu
A Unit of Weight ma-na manû
Louse mar
To Roll, Turn ? mar- ? mar (wagon) máro (roll, bend) ?
To Winnow mar
Interest (on a loan) maš
Goat maš (ū̆sr- (aurochs)) wača ~ waća (young animal: female deer, foal) wać- (ram)
Basket ma-sa2 masabbu
Tiara, Type of Crown men
Blackness mes
A Tree meś ? mes (a tree) mésV (wild apple, grape) ʕämćṓ (apple, medlar) [ʕämćṓ (fruit)] ((a)masl- ?) mēsu mc̣q̇aw- (k. of cherry tree)
Great, Old (?) meś mes (hero) mása (more, stronger) meć- (old, elder)
One's Own me-te
Same men min (two) mḕnò (self, body) mēn- (body)
North Wind mir vàḍ- (north) ? (wiʔri (left (side) ?)
Stump mud
Tube, Socket mot` mud mi̯ót`i (joint) muṭ- (knee, elbow)
Delivery mu-du
Beer Jar mudx(LAK449) / mud[urudu] módè (bend, circle) ?
A Kind of Garment mug
Cup or Bowl muh (pos. bi̯uk`e (vessel/gourd))
To Shine ŋol- ? mul (star; to shine) ŋi̯ōle (red, pink; yellow) ?
A Fish mun
Brackish munu3
Rotten, Overripe ? mun- munu4 (malt) mi̯ójńi (become overripe, rot)
A Profession munu4
Worm, Snake moč` ? muš (snake) m[a]bči (worm, insect) miʒ_Ă (stinging insect) [míʒV] mous- (fly, stinging fly, gnat) (omča ? (a k. of insect, bug)) (muS(j)[-ir_-] (red ant)) mVc (ant) (mć̣er- (insect, fly))
Type of Fish muš
To Cuddle? muš3
Flat Space muš3
A Bird mu-X
Son-In-Law mi2-us2-sa (son-in-law) māšu (twin) (obviously, though this may be the genetic cognate, it is not close connotatively) [(Sem): Ug. mt_ (child); Eg. ms (child); E Ch. mič- (small boy, child, son)] ?
To Drink (/ To Water) naŋ na8 [naĝ] (to drink) ni̯àŋu (field, grazing place, hunting place) (yAun- (fixed place))
A Musician nab ńū̀bV ? (entertainment)
Potash, Soap naĝa
Mortar naĝa3
A Fish nam
Set Path, Drawn ? (or 'to curse'?) nam ? nam (ES na-aĝ2) (determined order (fate)) ńi̯àmi (trace) (or ńi̯áme (to curse, harm) ?) neme- (to be angry, to scold nav- (to sulk, be jealous)
Somebody na-me
Musician ner ? nar ni̯uru (song and dance) ?
A Plant ni-a
Female Dog nig ŋi̯ā̀k`u ? (dog, wolf) (ńukśe (sable, marten)); (Sam noka) (n[u]kuṛi (dog))
Possession; Thing ? niŋ niĝ2 (ES aĝ2) (thing) nìŋi (burden, load)
Fly, Insect nim
Lady neŋ (/ niŋ ?) nin [nim2] (ES ga-ša(2)-an, ka-ša-an) (lady) nĕ́ŋu (female relative (sister or sister's wife) (i̯enǝ-ter- (brother's wife)) niŋä (woman, female) nānd_- (female relative)
Sister nin9
Male nita
Ewes or Nanny Goats nu2-a
(To) Lie Down, (Go To) Sleep (?) no- ? nud [nu2] (-r / -d) (to lie down (of people)) ŋū́ju (to sleep) ? (au- (pass the night)?) nOjV (to tire) ?
A Profession nu-ka
Prince nun
To Discover ? pa-t pa3 [pad3] (to find, discover) p`ḗt[e] (name, to call) pedj-[ar] (name)
To Break pat` pad (to break (into bits)) p`ā̀t`à (to strike, hit) [fet- (break, cut)] peṭ- (to hit; to push) (petk (to burst, break))
Bow / Bone ? pa-n(a) ? pana p`èjńé ? (bone) ? [Paŋ (tooth) ?] piŋe ? (tooth) ipen/fan (tooth)
Large Mouse peš2
A Bird peš2
Fig peč` ? peš3 (fig) p`úč`í (...willow, blossoming bush) pećV (willow) pūS- (k. of tree (with fruits))
Surpassing, Outstanding rib
To Donate rig7
To Withstand ru-gu2
(To) Tie (Shoes) sig [sa2]
Regular Temple Offerings sa2-du11 sattukku (< Sum)
Healthy, Good se-g sag8 [sa14 / sig15] / sag9 (good, beautiful, sweet) sḕgù (healthy; blood) [sV́QV̆] (live, breathe) (esH-r (blood))
Designation of Goats ša3-du10
Rail (of a doorframe) ša3-si
To Connect, Hold ? ǯap ? šab (clay sealing) ǯap`ù ? (to hold, connect) sep- (take into hands) ? čap- (clap hands) ? ć̣ap- (to take, gather)
A Net sa-du3
Person, Individual; People ? čaŋ saĝ (head; person) č`aŋo (people, gathering)
CVVE saĝ
Strike, Beat sag3
Strew, Shake ? sak sag3 (throw (down)) sā́ki (jump shake) skek- (run, to spring) (ćäkće (jump, hop)) so-k ? (climb) sḳin- (jump, leap)
A Priest saĝa2
Reed Bundle sa-gi
A Mat sah suhhu (< Sum)
Pig šah ǯa[r]q̇V (sow, pig) ? šāhû (< Sum)
Isolated, Sparse sal- sal (thin, fine) sálo (separated)
To Winnow sal4
Purchase Price sam2 [čā̀ma (ǯām-) (hesitate, argue) ?] (šīmu ?)
Fertile ? Soil sar (śar) sar (garden) si̯ắŕi (earth, sand; marsh) swVre (earth, sand) [k'er- ((s)ḱer-) ?] (mūšaru) ([sVhr- ?]) (śarV~ (*ćarV) (excrement)) (saṛap- (cow dung))
To Recite ? sar (śar) sar (to write) sarV (song, feast) (śarna (incantation; speech)
Nauseated sar
Designation of Cows šar
To Slaughter šar2
All, A Lot ? ǯer šar2 (totality, world) ǯ[i̯ō]ŕo (a big number)
Upset With ? ǯer- šara2 (to slander) ǯḕri (annoyed, disgusted) šâru (/ [ǯV(H)r- (angry, frightened)] źar- (...to be scared; to be unpleasant)
Grain-Ration še-ba [to divide barley]
A Tree še-du10
Mudbrick šeg12 [še27] (ES še-eb) (mudbrick) ši̯ṑgV ? (juice) ?
To Cook šeĝ6
A Fish šeg9
Precipitation sig (śig) [also A.ŠU2.NAGA; perhaps originally šeŋ > [a]šneg] šeg9 [sig14] (snow) sigí (rain, (snow) storm) [or si̯uŋe (hoar-frost)] [or  sneigʷhe-

(snow)]

(sikśe (autumn)) [or šüŋe] sug-i (harvest SDR) [or ciṇ- (drop, drizzle)]
Corriander še-lu2 [Eg. š3.w ?]
A Metal še-lu3
(To Be) Pure (possibly a Uralic loan) šen ((to be) pure, clean) zèjńa (new) (jaŋɨ / jeŋi (new); Mng. sine (new); TM seńe- (raw, unripe)) c̣ä̆nʔV (new) šeŋä (good, healthy) (ʔcVŋ (clean, bare) ?)
Cauldron šen
Bitter, Brackish ses
Brother šeš
A Fish šeš
To Place se-g (śe-g ?) si [sig9] / si3 [sig10] ségì ? (to litter, mat) c̣q̇(w)- (to pile up, arrange) ?
A Pot šid
Count(ing) šid
Pluck Hair or Wool sig7
Class of Worker sig7
Designation of Cows sig7
Wool, Fleece; Hair siki [sig2]
Street sila
Unit of Capacity sila3
Cut (of Meat) sila3
Lamb sila4
Swallow sim
Type of Basin šim
Aromatic Substance šim
To Smell, Sniff sem (śem ?) sim [sin2 / šim2 / šam4 / si13] saŋu(ńV) (smoke) sHwínṭV (sniff, snuff) (sneu-) ? ([sin- (nose)]) su/üŋV (taste, smell); säŋe (smell) cVŋ (smell; nose) św-en- (breathe, sigh, rest)
Testicle šir
A Song šir3
Fair, True (of gur[unit]) si-sa2
A Priest šita
To Give ču-g su [sug6] (to repay a loan) či̯ŏge (give, exchange) =i[ć]V (dist., sell) [=i[ć]V (give, sell)] [čay- (give) ?] śī- (to give) ć- (beat, give)
Distant su3 (-r / -d) (nasahu ?)
Qualification of Land su3-la
Wooden Item šu4-a
Threshing Floor sur [su7]
Rest Upright su-k su8 [sug2] (to stand) soke (kneel, be inclined)
Wild Cat su-a
To Suck sub [šub] ši̯úp`ù (to suck, hold in mouth)

c̣uṗV (suck) [[c̣]uṗV (sucking)]

sūp- (gulp; broth, soup) ĉVp- (?) (suck, absorb) cub- (to suck) cVp (suck) c̣ob- (to suck)
To Fall šub ǯobá (cut, crush) ?
Prayer, Dedication šud3
Fully Equipped, In Full Working Order šu-du7
(To Be) Empty č(`?)u-g sug4 [su3] ((to be) empty) č`i̯ū́[g]a (scarce, poor) čukka (loss; to spoil, lose) ʒok- (PGn)
Unmng šu-ga7
Penis suku suku5 (not archaic) (pole) si̯ū̀ku (to copulate, insert) (TK sik- (to copulate, penis); Mong sige-d- (to get stuck, removed); TM sōKān (to copulate, copulation)) šukû (door pole (Sum. loan))
Fisherman šu-ku6
(To Be) Manly šul
Salted, Pickled Meat su-la2
A (Metal) Vessel šu-la2
Saw šum
To Slaughter šum
A Fish šum
To Give šum2
Garlic šum2
Crest, Beard (?) su-n ? sum4 [sun4 / su6] (beard) sū̀na (crest, hair lock) ?
Cypress šu-me
To Spin; To Twist sur
To Press, Squeeze sur
A Bread sur
(To Be) Furious sur2
Half sur3
Sink Down šuš
Priest šuš
Finger; Unit of Length šu-si
Two teb tab (to double) ti̯ubu ((t)xq̇wV̄) dwe- (tawʔam (twin Sem)) (to-ńće (second)) (ṭq̇u- (twins))
To Lean On, Hold ? ta-(g) ? tag [ta3] (touch, take hold of) taja (to lean on) [or ti̯ok`e (touch, reach)] (dUjV (dark) ?) [or ST tǝ̄k] [or tag(')] [or  tVyak- (take)] taje (to bow, incline) [or takka] [or tag- (to touch)]
To Attach, Add tak` tah (to add, increase) tàk`u (attach, touch, reach)
Set Aside, Leave Behind tak4
Big, Broad ta-(l) tal2 [ta7] (big, good) tā̀jV (broad, expand)
To Trust tam
Kind of Fish tar
To Cut Down tar
A Bird tar
(To Be) Near To teĝ4 [ti] / teĝ3 [te]
Pole, Part of Wooden Object til
(To Be) Completed til
To Live til3
Mud tir (mud; ( > ?) forest)
Unmng ti-sa2
To Give Birth tud
A Kind of Plow ? tug
To Plow, To Apply a Certain Type of Plow tug (tŭ̀gì (to pound) ?)
To Sew, Garment ? tog tug2 (textile, garment) teg[u] (to make knots, tie a hook)
To Reach, Get To t`uk- tuku [duk2 / du12] (to acquire, get) t`ukì (come to an end, exhausted) dgʷhey- (disappear, die) [dag- (forget, lose)] (tëwkä (stop)) teg- (full, finished) (dagr- (end))
Architectural Feature tul2
Wild Dove tum12 (summatu ?)
A Fish tum12
Suitable tum2
Unmng tum2
To Bring [de] tum3
Wind tumu túmu (cold, snot) tum- (to sneeze)
Lip tun3
Small t`u-r tur [du13-rV] (to be) small [presumably identically derived as with tur (child)] t`ṓro (weak, hungry, unable) ter- (tender; young) [ṭrʔ- / trr (fresh / new)] tōre (fresh, raw) tār_- (thin, dried)
Child, Be Born t`ur tur [du13 ...?] ((young) child)

[presumably developed along with tur (small) from the same source]

t`ŏ̀ri [t- ?] (to be born, copulate); [t`ṓro (weak, hungry, unable)] (tu̯er- ?)
Enclosure, Vessel ? tur ? tur3 (animal stall) tṓŕu (birch bark, vessel made of birch bark) ?
To Sit (down) tuš
A Bird u2-du
A Place for Storing Fish u2-mu11
A Bird u-bi2
A Bird ud-ša
A Bird ud-ur
Raven uga
A Bird uga
Old Woman [see ama] um-ma
A Fish unu
A Bird ur3-ab2
A Fish ur-ba15
A Vessel uri
Standard (Flag) urin urinnu (< Sum)
To Guard urin
Gathering, Town uru uru11 / iri (city) i̯úrù (to gather, crowd) werǝ- (to string, put in a row) ur_- (numerous, abundant)
Flood, Deluge uru18
Copper urud (e)reudh- (red)
Pacification urun
(To Be) Exalted urun
Evening usan
Weaver uš-ba15 išparu (?)
Cella, Shrine uz-ga
Flesh uzu
Arm, Side (Flank) ? č`a-k ? zag [za3] (arm (side, right ?)) č`ak`e ? (forearm) č̣V[l]ḳ_wV (hoof, foot) [c/c̣uḳl- (thigh, leg, elbow)] săg (Kant foot); čæwɣa (Sam hock) (ć̣q̇rta (elbow))
Fall, Disappear ? ? zak` zah2 (to disappear) zi̯à[k`]ó (to hang, droop)
To Wake, Be Awake ? zel zal (to get up early) zela (to be awake; to live)
To Cut, Tear zar3 (sheaf (of barley)) č`àro (to cut off, tear off) c̣ǝ̆wră (sharp, sharp instrument) (s)kerǝ- (to cut) sarru [zarru/ṣarru] (sheaf (of barley)) [/ c̣ir- (cut) ?] (ćärke- (to break; to ache)) car- (tear, split) č̣ar- / č̣r-
A Fish za-ri2
A Bird zeh
Right zid
Flour zid2
Swell, Rise č`i-k zig3 [zi] (issue; raise, levy) č`ĭk`a (rise, sprout) śig- (sprout, shoot)
To Cut, Tear č`ir zir [zi] (to tear out) č`ire (to cut, scrape)
Emmer Wheat ziz2 č`eč`u (flower) ?
Watercourse zubi
To Steal zuh
Round, To Turn č`um zum č`i̯úmu (round(ed) object)
A Fish zum
To Take Care zur
To Break zur-zur

I think this was intended to be a Swadesh List; I'll omit IDs that aren't critical and that don't match the form closely enough (so for instance with the deictic particle e- (third row), I'll omit anything not suffixed with -n-).

Meaning Sumeroaltaic (Reconstruction) Sumerian

Altaic

North Caucasian [or SC] Indo-European Akkadian [Afroasiatic] Uralic Dravidian Austric Kartvelian
You (sg) se zae si
We menden [t:V (WC)] tV
You (pl) [se(-n)] menzen
They [e-n-n] anene (enene) é (that (deictic root)) [Mong. e-ne (that); also Tk/Jp] en- (pron. dem.: that) a (that [part. Kolami-Gadba & Gondi-Kui])
How? agin / anagin
All keš (of a set) kiš késu (thing, sort, order)
Many ǯer šar2 (a lot; total) ǯ[i̯ō]ŕo
Many mah (great) meg'a- ? mag- ? mik- mak-
Few (~ small [tur])
One diš, (ES) did/dit
Two (< same ?) men (same) min (two; ditto) mḕnò (self, body)
Three peš
Four limmu
Five ya
Big gul / gal ? gal (& gula) gi̯ălu / gaĺi (to contest)
Wide ? (~t`aŋ-) daĝal t`āno (stretch, pull) ? [dVŋV (pull)] ta:ŋ (PAA; stretch) ṭen- (stuff, pack tight)
Thick gur gur4 gŭri
Heavy dugud
Small tor ? tur t`ṓro (weak, hungry, unable) *If aspiration wrong
Short luk- ? (compact, tight) lugud li̯u[k]u (thick, dense)
Narrow hulu
Thin sal sal sálo (to be separated)
Woman munus (ES nunus) nŭsA [nŭsÁ] nisw- nezv- (female animal)
Person i3-li2 (man) (non-archaic) (possibly a loan) [theoretically, might be read ha-li2] k`i̯uĺe (person) (Tk kiĺi > Old Orkh/Uygh kiši (person, people); TM (x)ile - Evenki ile (person)) ((s)kʷel- (person))
Man (adult male) na
Man (adult male) nu
Child du- ? dumu (ES du-mu) Manchu jui (son/child) ?
Bird mušen (ES mutin) [ɦ[ć̣]ɨ̄́nĭ] ?
Snake moš muš m[a]bči (worm, insect)
Worm ? [mar (~wer)] mar (ĝar) ebVrV (worm, snake)
Tree ? ŋeš ? (ES mo) ĝeš (ES mu) [Tkic os] (mū́ro; root reconstruction wrong - ~ mo) ōs- (ash) [Eg ʕš (cedar)]
Forest tir ṭewr- ?
Stick unu ?
Fruit ol ul ? ŭ̀ĺà (hemp) / ójle (small fruit) ?
Fruit kur- gurun (kurun) kŏ̀ru (nut)
Fruit bil2-ga
Seed numun
Grass sas [~ Akkadian?]
Meat niĝšuma
Blood mud
Blood moŋ (?) umun mi̯oŋe (?)
Egg nunuz [nuz-nuz ?]
Tail kun ? kun kēńa (front leg, armpit, angle) ka:ń ? (PAA; branch)
Hair siki č`[i̯a]k`I (temple, ear) ?
Hair munsub (also barber)
Head čaŋ saĝ (head, person, capital) č`aŋo (people, gathering)
Ear ŋeǯ- (weǯ-) ĝeštug (ES muštug) (reason, plan; wise; wisdom, understanding; ear) ḗbǯo (to see, understand) ? =ămc̣Ĕ (to know, see) ? ous- ?
Ear ŋeč`- (weč`-) ? ĝizzal (wisdom; understanding; ear; hearing) ič`V (to hope, see)
Nose kiri3
Mouth ka-k ? kag (ka) kek`V (palate, throat) ?
Mouth pu3 [< Akkadian]
Fingernail umbin [< Akkadian]
Foot ĝiri (ES meri)
Leg pah
Belly k`aš (lower body) haš2(-bar) [also haš4] (lower body, abdomen; thigh -(belly; womb)) k`ā́sa (place between limbs)
Guts šagniĝin (intestines)
Back [tentatively ger-] eĝir (egir) kèro (back, to return) ? [only Turkic gErü]
Breast ubur bhreus- ? bVr- (Cush, Sem) ? bōr-
Liver ur ur (liver; main body, bulk) ṓŕì (middle, inside)
Bite zu2 kud
Blow bol- bul bolī- (Ewk) [or bŭlu (cloud)]
Breathe paŋ (agape) pa-aĝ2 (breathing, breath; to breathe) p`éŋi (to gape, hole)
See igi duh / igi la (others? Akkadian confusing)
Hear ŋeǯ- (weǯ-) ĝeš tuku (to listen, hear) ḗbǯo (to see, understand)
Think šag4 dab / šag4 dab5
Fear ni2 teĝ3 (fear approach)
Fear su zig3 (skin rise)
Sleep u3 ku / u3 ku4
Kill kas (to be hostile, hurt) ? gaz (gas / kas) kasa (to prohibit, be in one's way)
Fight du14 mu2
Hit tud2
Cut zi2
Cut bur bur (bu3 ??) bùro (to break, crush)
Cut ket ? kid7 ki̯ā́tu (sharp tool; notch) ?
Cut guruš3 (/4)
Cut šuš4
Split dar
Scratch k`ur hur k`[ŭ]ri (to rake up)
Scratch suhur
Scratch umbin la2 (to hang the nail)
Dig bal (ba-al & bal)
Dig dun
Fly dal
Fly baraš (ab-ra-aš >)
Sit tuš
Sit dur (imp. s.)
Sit durun (pl.)
Sit dur ĝar
Sit dub3 ĝar
Sit dub3 gurum
Stand gop ? gub gi̯ṓp`e (to swell, form blisters)
Turn (intr.) bala
Turn (intr.) niĝin2
Fall šub
Hold haza
Hold šu du8
Squeeze (?) (& press) sur
Squeeze hir
Squeeze hehezer [syll.]
Rub sub (& sub6) ?? [unclear on early meaning; probably 'suck' and not rub]
Rub ur5
Wash luh
Wash a tu15 / a tu17 / a tu5
Wash me
Wipe šu su-ub ?
Pull šu dub
Push t`u (extend the arm) ? du7 t`ŭja (to give, give a feast) ??
Throw gurud
Tie kad kad4 kádù (a k. of harness (bridle)) / ki̯àdi (seam, to sew, lace)
Tie kešed
Sew bul- (to bore, puncture) bulug [also needle] bi̯ŭ́le (to rub, whet)
Count sed (or šed ?) šid (really sid ?) sèdá (to think, determine)
(Moon) (loan) šer (sir2 > še-er) (reddening; bright; radiance) zēra (Old Tk. jaru- (to shine); Old Mng. sara (moon)) ʒ_whărī / *ʒ_wăhrī (star) [ĉahar- (star, moon); Sem. ŝahr- (new moon)]
Sing ser ? šir3 [sir3] sarV (song, feast)
Play ene dug4
Float t`er ? (melt, drip) ? dirig [diri] (drift; float; soak; dissolve) t`i̯árV (to melt)
Swell ul- (be soaked, bloated) ? ul ŭ̀lu (to soak, wet)
Swell maz
Moon itud [iti, itid] (& i3-ti & i-ti)
Water eš10
Water illu
Water nag-bu [possibly derived thus, flitting ~waters]
Water neg- niĝin neku (lowland, water meadow) ?
Rain šeĝ3 [še7]
Rain em- (water; or falling water ?) im (ES me-er) ā̀mú (river, valley)
Sea ab ṓp`à ? (to drink, inhale) [possible Hittite loan ?] (H)ap- (river, stream) ʕab- (drink) op- (to wet)
Salt mun / mun4 / munu3
Salt di-ni-ig c̣_wĕnhV ?
Stone č`a za (bead, gem) č`ā́jV (sand, sandbar) (č̣ä̆č̣wV indirect ?)
Dust sahar (s)ḱer- ?
Earth a-ra-li
Earth ganzer
Earth u
Earth zikura
Cloud ze2-la
Cloud dungu
Cloud tilhar
Fog bar-šeĝ3
Wind lil2
Wind sisig
Wind tumu (chill?) ? tumu túmu (cold, snot)
Snow [also ice] sig- (?) šeg9 [sig14] sigí (rain, (snow) storm)
Ice k`al- ? halba k`ale (snow, snow-flakes)
Ice amagi
Smoke i-bi2 eba (to winnow, fan) ?; or other
Ash de3-dal [?] [loan from Neo-Assyrian/Babylonian]
To Burn kur (ki̯ằgru (?)) g'werǝ- (or kurǝ-) kar- ? kur- (brilliancy, silver)
To Burn bel bil, bil3 bĕ̀ló (pale)
To Burn ber ? bar7 [bir9] p`òre (fire; to burn) [~pir] ? [wăr (ST)] werǝ- war- ur- warwar-
To Burn (To Roast) sa c̣Vḥ- ? (dry) ć̣w- ?
To Burn t`ep ? tab [dab2], tab2 [?] t`ep`V (warm, to burn) ? [tǝ̆p (fireplace)] tep- dVfVʔ- (?) tVp (PAA) ṭep- / ṭp-
To Burn ma5(-ma5)
To Burn šu hu-uz
To Burn gurum2 ~gUrV 'burn, hot coals' ? [Manchu ?]
To Burn u2-ku-uk =ōgwV ʕak-
To Burn t`ep dib [dab] t`ep`V (warm, to burn) [tǝ̆p (fireplace)] tep- dVfVʔ- (?) tVp (PAA) ṭep- / ṭp-
Road kaskal
Road ka-ĝiri3 [also ki-ĝiri3]
Mountain kur kur k`ori (hill; embankment, boundary) [the aspiration is probably a secondary feature of Eurasiatic] GwērV (stone) gʷer(w)- kur- kùr_- (in mntn. tribal names) gora-
Mountain hursaĝ
Mountain
Mountain gin3 hG_wānū ?
Mountain ga-bi-ri
Red t`er- dara4 t`ḕŕù (dirt, dung) ?
Red hibiz
Red (2) huš
White k`om- (bone (white)) hu-um ? k`i̯ome (Mng. kemi (marrow, bone with marrow); TM (marrow (in purest derivation)); Tk kEmük (bone, spongy bone, cartillage)) (Hamq̇_wĂ (hard)) (ak-m- <PIH *a->, *kām- (IndoIr) (stone, rock)) (kämä (hard)) (SDr kēm- (strong, hard)) (kVŋ (hard, dry))
Black mes mīč̣V (dark) mUC ? (black (FP)) mas- (black pigment) mVt ? (cloud, darkness)
Warm um- (hot) kum4 [um2] (>) kum2 ((to be) hot) [possibly ind. Akk phonetic influence] umV ? (fire, to burn)
Cold sed6 [še23, se27], še12 [se24]
Cold eš13 eis- (is- PGnd; soak)
New -bel (young) ? gibil4 [bi2, bil] / gibil [bil2] bāla (child, young) bHăŁ_i (young)
Old či̯um- (many, a lot) sumun (old) - possibly suffixed with -mu (/-ĝu) > sumuĝ (sumun) ("many years") in adj-prefixing early Sumerian; maybe also kisumun (unkn. mng. > at a wide open tract of land? ki-sumu-ne ? (kisumun is heavily associated with a-ša3 (field) - maybe grazing land?) či̯ùmi (Tk. Tümen, Kr. čɨ́mɨ́n, Jp. ti) (~thousand)
Old libir (shared with OAkk labaru)
Good zil (choice [thing]) ? zil2 sili (~*z-) (to choose, inspect)
Bad k`ol- hul k`i̯aĺu ( ~ *k`i̯oĺa) (dirt, unpleasant odor)
Rotten hul-dim2
Dirty mudur (also dirt) (t`ṓŕe) mṭwe[r]-
Straight si sa (to make straight) (sas-) ?
Round (Circle) ĝeš-bu10 kósV ? [< kesu ?] kɨ̄č̣wɨ̆
Round (Circle) gur2
Wet duru5 [Tk / Mng] tVwVr- (flow, drip; soaked) twer- (drink) ?
Dry a-ba-al
Dry šarag
Dry ab-hi-ir
Correct šušur, šušur2
To Near tehi
Far asilal [silx(EZENxLAL2)]
Left gab2-
Elk/Camel t`ib- (< t`eb 'to pass') dibid/dibida t`ĭbŋe
(To) Get up Early/Pass zal zal zela (to awake; be alive)
Companion anta anta ā́nta
Vessel (1) silV sila sílV
Goat (1) maš
Post t`em dim t`ĕma (net string, net needle ?)
Flat (Surface, Land) den eden di̯ā́no
Disappear zak` (to drop, fall) ? zah zi̯à[k`]ó (to hang, droop)
Admiration, Wonder u(-d) u (/> u-di) i̯ŭdu
Sister(/Lady) neŋ (lady) nin (also nim; sister only) nĕ́ŋu
Lady en- innin ĕ́ńa
Mes-Tree mes (type of tree) mes(-babbar) mésV (wild apple, grape)
Hero (Young Man) mes (strong, great) (or Kartv meć- 'old, elder') mes (meš) mása (more, stronger)
Bow pana (curved bone, stick) ? pana (bana) p`èjńé ? (curved bone)
Pot tug (to make loops, curve something) dug ((clay) pot) teg[u] ? (to make knots, tie to a hook)
High on un ṓni
People oŋne (same, self; lonely)
Garden sar (land; or to bloom?) sar si̯ắŕi (also sáro 'blossoming bush?')
Hips ib (hips, joined) ib èbà (to join, meet)
Load gun (to push) ? gun guna (to rob, attack, torture)
City uru (gathering of people) iri (uru (also ES)) i̯úrù (to gather, crowd)
Nail, Arrowhead kak (stone or shell) ? gag (kak); kak ki̯aka ? (shell)
Stick bül bul5-bul5 bi̯ŏla
Silent sig sig (šeg) sĭ̀gà
Wheat, Millet kip kib kìp`é
Break (2) k`aǯ haš k`ĕǯa
Oak (Tree) k`Vl(-Vp) (Eastern culture word ?) halub kúĺap`V; k`olV
Exceed tir ? dirig (diri (dir, du); RI) tī́ri
Wall bad p`ádo
(To) Bear tut (to nurture) utud (< tud) tḕtu (respect, care)

Multisyllabic Words

Meaning Sumeroaltaic (Reconstruction) Sumerian

Altaic

North Caucasian [or SC] Indo-European Akkadian [Afroasiatic] Uralic Dravidian Austric Kartvelian
Child - hibira (son) (< maybe from an Altaic or IE dialect with accompanying metathesis ?) k`i̯ŭrpe (young (animal, fish) gʷerǝbh- (child, young one) (karb- (egg, foetus))
God t`eŋ(g)er

[t`e-aŋ-ir

diĝir t`aŋgiri
Curved Object k`op`ur hubur k`ep`orV (Mong kabir- - WMong qabirɣa(n), qabisu(n) (rib); Tk KApur- - OTurk qabar (rib); TM xebti- (rib)) (GwHV̄bV̆ (stack, haystack)) ghAubh-, ghūbh- (to bend) ([gʷab- (bend)[ kaP- (to bend, turn over) gib- (to twist)
Tigris id/t` eŋŋa

(> id egna (with uneven retention of the -ŋŋ- ?) (~Regular River) [id7 cognate not yet found]

idigna

(id7 eĝ-ĝa ? > id eg-na river measure-ADJ measured ~ regular river)

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